Hreflang is an HTML attribute used to specify the language and geographical targeting of a webpage. It tells search engines which language you are using on a specific page, so the search engines can serve that page to users searching in that language. This is particularly useful for websites that have content in multiple languages or versions tailored to different regions.

Detailed Discussion

The hreflang attribute is crucial for international SEO as it helps prevent duplicate content issues in multilingual and multi-regional websites by clearly indicating to search engines which version of the content is appropriate for a specific audience. This ensures that users are directed to the version of the site that is most relevant to them, based on their language preference or geographic location, enhancing the user experience and site’s effectiveness.

Key Components

  • Language Code: Specifies the language of the webpage content using ISO 639-1 format, such as “en” for English or “es” for Spanish.
  • Country Code: Optionally, a country code can be added to target users in a specific country, using ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 format, such as “US” for the United States or “GB” for Great Britain, making it possible to differentiate between, for example, British English (en-GB) and American English (en-US).
  • Self-referencing: Each page should include an hreflang tag for itself, in addition to tags for other language or regional versions.


  • Improved User Experience: Directs users to the content in their preferred language or tailored to their region.
  • Better Search Engine Visibility: Helps search engines understand the targeted audience for each page, improving the chances of displaying the correct page in search results.
  • Prevents Duplicate Content Issues: Clarifies to search engines that content available in multiple languages or versions is not duplicate content but intended for different audiences.


  • A website that offers content in English and French might use <link rel="alternate" hreflang="en" href="" /> for the English version and <link rel="alternate" hreflang="fr" href="" /> for the French version.
  • For a website targeting English speakers in the United States and the United Kingdom, the tags might look like <link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-US" href="" /> and <link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-GB" href="" />.

Technical Details

Implementing hreflang requires careful planning and execution to ensure accurate targeting and to avoid common mistakes, such as incorrect language or country codes and missing return links. It’s important to regularly review and update hreflang annotations, especially as new content is added or site structure changes.

Nedim Mehic

Nedim is a senior technical SEO specialist, and the co-founder of Beki AI. On the Beki AI blog, we share new and innovative strategies to SEO and content marketing.

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